Volume 4, Issue 1, 2014


Table of Contents

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Editor's Notes

   Leslie Moller


Evaluating Design Patterns for Intentional Learning in Educational Video Games: Identifying a Common Language for Interdisciplinary Collaborations

   Michael A. Evans, Megain A.H. Walker, Troy Abel, Meredith McGlynn, and Anderson Norton


Abstract: As educational video games (EVGs) grow in popularity as instructional technologies, forging a link between the fields of design education, the learning sciences, and instructional design is essential to increasing probability of intentional learning. Moreover, as interdisciplinary teams comprised from fields such as visual communication, creative technologies, and human-computer interaction work together, a common language is needed to communicate intentions and concerns. Following the release of the CandyFactory app, an EVG designed to encourage middle school students to think deeply about fractions, our research team assessed the app for design, usability, and engagement. To understand how the design of the app helped or hindered the game’s success, we conducted internal usability testing, observed playtesting sessions with middle school students (n=16), and interviewed middle school mathematics teachers (n=6). The team listed the game’s design patterns and used feedback from these three pattern groups to assess the strengths and weaknesses of each pattern. The patterns were: technical implementation, educational appropriateness, and fun and enjoyment. By analyzing the CandyFactory app’s design patterns, we discovered that although students enjoyed playing the app, multiple aspects of the game design impeded the intended designed learning experience. Identifying these problem areas underscores the need for a more holistic approach to game development, including iterative usability testing during the design and development stages, prior to deployment and implementation. EVGs created absent design and usability considerations from multiple perspectives could fail to achieve intended instructional objectives.

Keywords: design patterns, game design, educational video games, mathematics, middle school education, qualitative usability methods


Computer-Supported Collaborative Concept Mapping for Learning to Teach Mathematics

   Young Hoan Cho, Nan Ding, Andrew Tawfik, and Óscar Chávez


Abstract: Although concept maps have been effectively used for knowledge representation and constructive learning, few studies have investigated how people collaboratively build knowledge with concept maps. The current study explored how pre-service teachers share and integrate their mathematical knowledge for teaching through computer-supported collaborative concept mapping (CSCM) activities. The pre-service teachers compared and integrated their digital concept maps, which represented lesson plans of defining exponential functions through discussions in a classroom. From multiple data sources, this study quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed knowledge building processes as well as benefits and limitations of CSCM. The CSCM contributed not only to the lesson-planning performance but also to collaborative knowledge building. Small groups were actively engaged in quick consensus building and integration-oriented consensus building rather than conflict-oriented consensus building. The limitations of CSCM were discussed for the improvement of the activity in pre-service teacher education.

Keywords: Concept map, computer-supported collaborative learning, lesson plan, mathematics, teacher education

Essay: Improving the Practice and Teaching of Instructional Design

   Gary R. Morrison


Abstract: An essay from one of the leading scholars and practitioners in the field of instructional design.


The Design and Implementation of an Educational Multimedia Mathematics Software: Using ADDIE to Guide Instructional System Design

   Nasrin Moradmand, Amitava Datta, and Grace Oakley

Abstract: Disconnection between theory for designing educational applications and theory relating to the application of technology in classrooms, as well as a lack of alignment between technology, curriculum and pedagogy, have been highlighted as main issues that can hamper the quality and relevance of existing computer-based educational applications. The study reported in this paper addressed this disconnection and lack of alignment through the development of a strong educational framework and use of an appropriate instructional system design (ISD). The components of the framework are described in this article, followed by a discussion of the process of applying the defined instructional design principles to the creation of the My Maths Story project’s interactive multimedia mathematics software. The entire implementation and evaluation process of the multimedia instructional materials, which targeted the teaching and learning of mathematics in the lower primary classrooms, is also presented.

Keywords: Instructional system design, mathematics education, multimedia software, cognitive learning


Overcoming educational game development costs with lateral innovation: Chalk House, The Door, and Broken Window

   Scott J. Warren and Greg Jones

Abstract: Over the course of the last decade, the idea of using games to support student learning has become increasingly accepted in academic circles as the next breakthrough for improving learning. However, the costs of developing games for learning can be prohibitive, with commercial game development running in the millions of dollars. In order to build low-cost educational games, we have proposed an alternative design method that leverages older, widely available technologies called Re-Examination Theory. This article presents three cases in which this theory has been leveraged to develop and implement educational games in both the K-12 and post-secondary settings.

Keywords: Re-examination; Chalk House; The Door; Broken Window; problem-based learning; literacy; research; models; low-cost; alternate reality games

A Design Framework for Enhancing Virtual Team Learning in the Workplace

   Jeanette Andrade and Wenhao David Huang

Abstract: This paper builds on existing theoretical and empirical studies in the area of virtual team learning in the workplace. Based on prescriptive theory building for instructional system design, a design framework is proposed to include social presence, swift trust, and conflict attribution components to enhance virtual team learning. This design framework intends to augment existing instructional system design models that are lacking emphasis on social and affective processing during virtual team learning in the workplace. Proposed implications for the use of this framework, suggestions for further research, and limitations of the design framework are discussed.

Keywords: Virtual teams, social presence, trust, conflict

Essay: Applied Instructional Design

   Andrew S. Gibbons

Abstract: An essay from one of the leading scholars and practitioners in the field of instructional design.

Analyzing Commercial Video Game Instruction through the Lens of Instructional Design

   Susan E. Copp, Rebecca L. Fischer, Tian Luo, David R. Moore, and Seann Dikkers

Abstract: This paper will examine how Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction (1992) may appear, perhaps inadvertently, within commercial games that guide the user from novice to expert player. By employing a qualitative artifact analysis methodology, we examine a popular action adventure video game to determine if game designers encourage players to build game expertise by employing similar events to Gagne’s instructional design model. We demonstrate that our artifact of analysis does consistently employ Gagne’s events, though often in a manner unique to a digitally mediated space. We conclude that an experiential game setting has the potential to be a platform for instructional delivery.

Keywords: Instructional Design, Gagne’s Events of Instruction, Video Games, Digital Media, Game Design.






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